Organised Folklore

In the second half of the 19th century, in larger and smaller cities in Croatia amateur groups were being established, as well as tamburica societies, wind orchestras and choirs. In Cavtat, at the beginning of the 20th century, a Croatian Society "Zora" was established, in which a tamburica section existed, made up of young people, and in 1910, a Diletant brass band was founded. In 1906, in Slano, a cultural society Sloga Slano was founded, in which a tamburica orchestra operated. The society operated up to the First World War, and then in 1931 the tamburica orchestra was re-established, for which the instruments were bought with the money from donations collected by sale of olive oil. From 1954 to 1960s, the society carried the name of Kulturno-prosvjetno društvo "Sloboda" (eng. "Freedom" – Cultural and Educational Society). It had a tamburica orchestra, which was conducted by Mr. Mato Knežević, and it was re-established in 1977 and existed until 1982. Cultural and artistic society from Točionik performed with "Linđo" at the International Folklore Festival in Zagreb in 1980. Immediately after the end of the First World War, a tamburica orchestra was founded in Čilipi, which later became the Cultural and Educational Society "Vladimir Nazor". A valuable contribution to the preservation of folklore was given by individuals, too. Namely, in Konavle, Mr. Niko Skurić taught traditional songs and dances and encouraged establishment of folklore groups in schools. The groups were founded in Gruda, Popovići, Pridvorje, Ljuta and Močići. In addition, tamburica orchestras were founded in Gruda, Pridvorje, Dunave, Cavtat, Pličice and Čilipi. In 1952, in Popovići, a cultural club "Miho Klaić" with the tamburica section was founded, as well as cultural societies in Pločice and Dubravka. In Gruda, in 1954, a Cultural and Educaitonal Society "Jedinstvo" was founded, and in Čilipi, in the same year, a Cultural Club "Čilipi", which started with their first folklore performances for organised tourist visits in 1967.

A great incentive to the development and presentation of traditional culture was given by "Seljačka sloga" – Croatian educational and charitable society, established in 1920 in Buševac. Later, similar societies were founded elsewhere; for example, on 11 October 1925, headquarters of Seljačka sloga were established in Zagreb, with numerous branch societies. Seljačka sloga, in cooperation with Seljačka pjevačka župa Matija Gubec, in the second half of the 1920s, independently in the second half of the 1930s, and in cooperation with the Association of Cultural and Educational Societies of Croatia during the 1950s, played a crucial role in interpretation and preservation of authentic folklore of our nation. As part of a 1929 festival, the Croatian tamburica association was formed, with the purpose to create and assemble as many amateur tamburica orchestras as possible. For the purposes of preservation of the rich folklore heritage, Sloga introduced festivals as the best form of presentation of Croatian culture, so that in the 1930s there were experimental, provincial and main festivals. In 1937, provincial festival was organised in Split, with participation of 22 groups from 6 districts from northern, central and southern Dalmatia. The first Konavle district festival took place on 14 August 1938, with performances of groups from Drvenik, Duba, Dunav, Čilipi – 2 groups, Popovići, Mrcine, Mrcine and Vodovađa, Pridvorje and Uskoplje. At the general festival in 1938, groups from southern Dalmatia performed as guests, and in 1939 at the general festival in Zagreb, organized on the birthday of the Radić brothers, on 11 June 1939, two groups from Konavle, Duba and Pridvorje performed. In the period between 1946 and 1952, the groups from Konavle performed four times at the general festival in Zagreb. At the International Folklore Festival in Zagreb, up to the Homeland War, the groups from Čilipi performed seven times, and then in 1993 the first time after the war. In the Dubrovnik parish, the first tamburica orchestra was established in Mandaljena in 1911, and operated on and off until the Homeland War. The Cultural society "Marko Marojica" from the Dubrovnik parish was established in 1976, and the next year, 1977, it performed at the Zagreb festival.